SALAI VAN LIAN THANG NIH FIANG CIKCEK IN A PHUAN KO CANG ATURU BAK

Kawlram Zawtnak, Damnak Sii Le Thlennak Lam Pathum I. Rampi Zawtnak Pathum (Three problems) Ahme pakhatnak. Ralkap cungcuan lungput: Ralkap khuaruahnak ah “rampi a dirpi khotu suttungbik cu ”military institution” hi kan si. Independence caah kan doh, 1958 Party buainak kan daihter, 1962 Tlangmi buainak kan kham, 1988 sandahpiahnak kan phisin, 2007 phungki buainak kan daihter, ralkap hi rak um hlah usih law, Kawlrampi hi a kekkuai cang hnga” tiah an ruah.

Ram dawbik le humhak khotu bik (guardian of sovereignty) kan si i a cungbik ummi kan si timi lungput military supremacy mindset khi an ngei. Miphun 135 kan um i ralkap thazaang in cang kho loin kan huh locun miphun fa tete in ram aa cheu lai, tiah an ruah. Cucaah Palimen ah ralkap 25% nih rampi kan humhak rih a hau, a buaituk sualah NDSC minin uknak kan lak khawh a hau, Defense, Border Affairs le Home Ministry le bang cu meithal aa thlaih liomi ralbawi bak nih kan tlaih rih a hau.

Ram uknak ah ralkap nih political leadership role kan tlaih rih ding hrim asi tiah 2008 phunghram an suai i, anmah nawl loin remh khawh ti lo dingin an tuah. Hi khuaruahnak rocotu cu USDP le NUP khi an si kan ti cun kan palh tuk lai lo. ii) Bamar miphun lungput: 1962 ah ralkap nih uknak a lak ruangah democracy ci a thi. Cucaah ramkhel buainak hrampi cu democracy umlonak lack of democracy kha a sangbik in an puh. Democracy kan hmuh hmasa ahcun zeizong vialte hi a ṭha dih ko lai, tiah an zumh.

Cucaah democracy minput in 1988 ah sandah an piah. Democracy min putin 1990 thimnak a lutmi NLD teinak an pek. Nain, ralkap nih uknak a chan duh lo. Hi khuaruahnak hrambunh in a cawltu buu nganbik cu: ramchung in NLD le 88 chanchuak phu an hun si. Ramleng in NCGUB le NCUB tbk an rak um. Hriamtlaiphu ABSDF zong a dir i dohthlenak a tuah ve. Hi hna khuaruahnak ahcun democracy pakhatnak, democracy pahnihnak, democracy pathumnak asi deuh zungzal i Tlangmi kan kong cu pahnihnak ah an chiah tawn.

Tlangmi kong kha aw thangpi in an au duh tuk theng lai lo. Hi lungput in 2015 thimnak a lutmi hi NLD lengah Kawlmi Party 30 leng an um. iii) Tlangcung miphun Lungput: Buchoh Aung San an thah hnuah Kawl cozah phunphun nih Panglong biatiam ningin uknak Phunghram an suai duh bal lo. Miphun hna karah itlukruannak (equality) a um ti lo. Mah tein itawlrelnak nawl (self-determination) kan ngei lo. Kawl miphun cu bawi phun ah an ichia i Tlangmi cu sal phun ah an kan chiah. Uknak nawl vialte Bamar Pyima nih an tlaih dih i, Tlangmi cu an tangah an kan nawk.

Cucaah Kawlram ramkhel buainak hrampi cu Phunghram in hram aa thawkmi constitutional crisis asi, tiah an ruah. Phunghram in aa thawkmi zawtnak asi caah democracy nih a damter khawhmi asi lo, damter khawh sehlaw Parliamentary Democracy chan (1948-1962) ah fakpiin hna kan rak hnok hnga lo i ram a buai hnga lo. Cucaah Kawlram kan serṭhan lai i kan damter lai kan ti ahcun Tlangmi kongkau hi a pakhatnak bik asi zungzal, tiah an ruah ve. Cucu hriam le nam in kum 60 chung ral an thawhpi ve. Hi lungput in ramkheltu buu hna cu: ramleng cun UNFC le NCCT bantuk an si. Ramchung cun Tlangmi party ikomhnak NBF le UNA phu tang aa funmi Tlangmi Party 50 leng an si.

Pahnihnak, Damnak Sii Pathum (Three solutions). i) Displined democracy: Buchohci Saw Mawng nih US le England ram bantuk Human Rights phun khi co ve nan duhcun chuak uh, permit kan pek hna lai, hi ram ahcun Myanmar he aa tlakmi lawng nan hmuh lai a rak ti bal. Ex-general Khin Ngunt zong nih Kawlram democracy cu Kawlram he aa tlakmi lawng asi lai tiah media nih bia a halnak ah thinhung nawnin a leh.

Hi khuaruahnak hrambunh in Tatmadaw cozah nih 2008 Phunghram ah Six Basic Principles an thlak i, disciplined democracy timi min cu an bunh. 2008 Phunghram cu kum 14 chung an suai hnuah 2011 ah rumro in an nunter. Tulio ah Ex-general Thein Sein nih cu disciplined democracy hauhruang chung ahcun a kan luhpi cuahmah nain kan zawtnak a dam kho naisai lo. Thlennak tampi an tuah len tak nain a kan thlopnak sii hi disciplined democracy asi caah a ne a va tong kho lo.

Hi hauhruang lengin damnak sii va dap rih a hau. ii) Genuine democracy: Pi Suu Kyi Palimen a ṭhut chungah ai hmaithlak bikmi cu dingthlu lairelnak rule of law le kapṭanh ngei lo thianghlim tein biaceihnak clean and independent judiciary hi asi. Democracy ramah a biapibik pawl an si. Cucaah Rule of Law and Tranquility Committee Chairperson tiang an tlaihter. Pi Suu Kyi a dam ahcun genuine democracy innpi chungah duhsah tein a hei kan luhpi te kho men ko. 2008 Phunghram kan remh hnuin.

Hi tiangah Bamar miphun cu an dam piang cikcek kho men cang. Sihmanhsehlaw, democracy timi sii nih miphun 100 leng icawhnak ramah a tlop kho lo. Democracy cu milu tammi uknak tyranny of majority hna asi tawn tikah Tlangmi zawtnak a zualtertu le a fahter chinchintu hna asi kho ve tawn. U Nu chanah democracy nih a kan thlop kho hlei lo caah tunitiang ral kan tho cang. Cucaah genuine democracy hauhruang lengah damnak sii va dap rih ṭhiamṭhiam a hau.

iii, Federal system: Tlangmi caah damnak sii umchun cu Federal phung in ram sertṭhan kha asi. Kawlram cu miphun zapi hrawmin kan ukti lai i mah le ramkulh cio cu zalong tein kan mah tein kan i uk ve lai timi shared-rule le self-rule komhmi phung kha Federal system muru tak cu asi ko. Hi kan zawtnak hi ralkap cozah zong nih a theih ve. Cucaah 2008 phunghram chungah federal sii pelte an cawh chih (tck. Amyotha Hluttaw ah iruang tein MP zat ithlah, Ethnic Affairs Minister, State Legislative List, Taxes Collected by State tbk).

Asinain, hi sii in Tlangmi an kan thlop hnik tikah kan dam nemmam hna lo. Federal sii-ai tam deuhpi cawhin rawnchap (2008 phunghram remh) lo ahcun hriam kan chia kho lai lo, kan dam kho lai lo, tiah ral zong kan tho i Parliament chung zongah kan au hnawh hna. Hi kan zawtnak hi Pi Suu Kyi zongnih a pemh ve ko. Asinain, Tlangmi thisa cungkhar taktak asi ve lo tikah kan mah tlukin zawtnak a fah a tuar ve lo i a thei dih kho thlu taktak lo.

Pathumnak. Thlennak Lam Pathum (Three ways for transition). i) Palimen chungin: Ram daw tampi Palimen ah kum 5 chung an ṭhu i a chungin ram sersiam an izuam. Acozah an khalhning, upadi thar an serning, pawlasi tete an thlakning le budget an ceihning a ṭha. Phunghram Remhnak Zohṭhantu Committee an dirh. Phunghram hi legal means cun remh khawh asi lo; political means in hruaitubikbik biaruah kan hau hmasa ti an theih caah Pyidaungsu Hluttaw nih Six-way Talks a hrih. Asinain, voikhat an itong i U Thein Sein le ralbawi Min Aung Hlaing nih political will an ngeih lo tikah Thurah Swe Mann nih zeipoah cang seh, thimnak a nai cang tiah Phunghram ah biapibik an timi pohmah paruk 59(f), 59(d) 436(a), 436(b), 60(c) le 418(b) cu remh dingin Paliament ah an chuahpi.

Chin MP rual zong nih Hluttaw ah ralkap ṭhu ti hlah uh tiah an au sek ve. Asinain, thimfung an thlak tikah 59 (d) ti lo cu a zapi tein a sung dih, ralkap le USDP cheukhat nih remh an duh bak lo. Thurah Shwe Mann cu rammi hmai ah zo na kan langh lengah ralkap titsa na phoh an ti i USDP haotu sinak in an thlak colh. Parliament chungin zuam cu kan izuam sek nain kan hlawh a tling rih ti lo kan ti ko lai. ii) Peace Process chungin: October 15, 2015 ah Tlangmi hriamtlai phu 8 le USDP cozah nih rampi kahdaihnak NCA min an thut.

Political Roadmap kan zoh tikah 1. NCA minthut. 2. Framework for Political Dialogue (FDP) suai 3. Political Dialogue (PD) tuah 4. Union Peace Conference kawh 5. Pyidaungsu Accord minthut 6. Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ah pompinak lak 7. Pyidaungsu Accord ningin rian ṭuanchuah tlamtlinh, tiah a um. Hi lampi nih thlennak a chuahpi kho taktak te hnga maw ti cu hohmanh kan chimchung kho rih lo. Ralkap nih zeitlukdah political will an ngeih timi ah aa hngat te lai. Asinain, tu dirhmun ahcun ram thlennak caah ruahchannak nganbik lampi asi rih in a lang.

iii) 2015 Cozah chungin November 2015 ah thimnak a um lai. Thimnak a um tikah hohmanh nih duhpoah in mipi an khal chukcho kho lo. Mipi nih an covo an kilkamh tikah democracy le thlennak a duhmi Party nih cozah an ser khawh i Palimen an uk te khawh. 2008 Phunghram nih ri a pekmi chungin thlennak zeimazat cu an chuahpi khawh men ko.Asinain, cu hauhruang ri leng cu an kal khawhnak lam a um lo caah harnak nganpi a tong lai. Cucaah Hluttaw chungin Constitution Review Committee bantuk dirhin hma an lak ṭhan khawh.

Hruaitubikbik itonnak Political dialogue phun zong cu an hrih ṭhan khawh. Tulio peace process nih a kalpimi political roadmap he zong an hei cawh chih khawh. 2010 thimnak lio tein ruahnak a ummi cu kum 5 dan tuahnolh lengmang ding thimnak hi tluang tein a kal ahcun ralkap khuaruahnak hi democracy tiluan nih thiang tein a ṭawlcaan a phan te kho men ko timi gradual transition kha a rak si. Cucaah 2010 thimnak zong cuh a herh ko tiah kan rak aupi.

Palinak. Tulio Palhnak Pathum (Three Mistakes) i) Democracy pakhatnak timi: Tulio ah democracy kan hmuh hnuah Tlangmi kong kan phisin khawh ko lai timi ruahnak a um. Cheukhat nih ralkap hi kan tei hnuah Tlangmi Party kan ṭanh te lai an ti. Cheukhat nih democracy tiluan nih 2008 phunghram a remh te ko lai an ti. Hi ruahnak nih NLD nih a tei phot ah a za ko, Tlangmi party kan sungh dih zongah a pawi lo timi ruahnak a chuahter. Hihi Kawl party democracy advocates pawl aupi tawnning asi.

Tlangmi caah aa palh bakmi dirnak khi asi. Tulio cozah le vawleimi hmanh nih hihi cu an pom theng ti lo. Tlangmi kong phisin hmasa locun democratization zong kan tuah kho ti lo. Ṭhanchonak zong pakhat hmanh kan kalpi kho ti lo an ti dih cang. Hi ruangah vawlei ramkip cozah he ibawm in Tlangmi kan kong hehchet phisin hmasa an izuam cuahmah hna khi asi.Cucaah zeihlan cemah Tlangcungmi issue hi pakhatnak bik asi tiah ethnic problems kan phisin khawh hlan lo chung poah Tlangmi thazaang ṭhawnter le cahter peng a hau lai. ii) Pi Suu Kyi nih ai a kan awh timi: 1989 ah General Saw Maung nih Party 200 leng nan si i zeitindah kan ton dih khawh hna lai a rak ti. Hi lioah Tlangmi Party 20 leng cu UNLD tangah an ifun. Party 130 leng cu an itong i Pi Suu Kyi nih ai kan awh seh tiah min an thut.

Asinain, UNLD kan pa le nih democracy caah Daw Suu cu kan zumh nain miphun iruannak le mah tein khuakhan lairelnak ca ahcun minung siloin mu tu kan itlaih an rak ti i minthut loin an kir taak hna. NLD zong nih Party zeitluk tam nih min nan thut zongah UNLD nih min a thut lo ahcun pakpalawng asi a rak ti i, UNLD cu a rak ton hna i Bo Aung Kyaw Street Declration timi cathanh komh zong an rak chuahti.

Tulio ah micheu nih Pi Suu Kyi nih Tlangmi ai a awh khawh ko tiah fawi tein kan chim tawnmi hi palh hmanh ah palh ngai khi asi. Pi Suu Kyi nih Phunghram remhnak le Tlangmi kong cu a aupi ve ko. Hi ruangah Tlangmi ai a kan awh tinak asi lo. Kawlrampi cu miphun hrambunh in dirhmi ram asi. Bamar miphun asi timi cu ngakchia in upa tiang nih theihmi asi. 1947 lio Aung San-Attlee London Talk ah Buchoh Aung San nih Tlangmi ai a rak awh khawh lo bantuk in Pi Suu Kyi zong nih Tlangmi aiawh khawhnak zeihmanh a ngei ve lo.

Pi Suu Kyi (NLD) nih ai kan awh khawh sehlaw Six-way Talks timi hruaitubikbik tonbiaruahnak cabuai ah khan Tlangcungmi phu aiawh in Dr. Aye Maung kha a ṭhut ve a herh hnga lo. 1994 UN General Assembly Regolution nih Tripartite Dialouge timi biachahnak ah tlangcungmi kha a tungtlangpi phu pakhat (key stakeholder) pakhat ah a kan telh hnga lo.NLD cozah a kai zongah Tlangmi phu aiawhnak (representation) cu a dang tein a dir peng khi a herh lai caah cu dirhmun cu Tlangcung miphun dihlak nih kan ṭhawnter khi a herh zungzal. iii) Tlangmi dirhmun fian lonak: Hmasa ahcun vawleipi nih Tlangmi kan dirhmun an kan theihpiak kho lo.

Rampi ṭhencheu a duhmi secessionists phun hnaah an kan ruah. Hnu ahcun Kawlram ramkhel buainak pathum lack of democracy, supremacy of military le ethnic problems timi three issues hi phisin an hau hi teh, tiah 1994 in UN General Assembly nih bia a hun chah thawk.Phuthum biaruahnak tripartite dialogue timi ruahnak a chuak i Tlangcungmi cu main actor le dialogue partner ah an kan telh thawk. Cu ruangh ramleng leiin Tlangmi phu ifunnak Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) tiang an dirh. Ramchung leiin kum 8 leng a thi cangmi UNLD kha United Nationalites Alliance (UNA) tiah 2002 ah an nunter ṭhan.

Thumkomh biaruahnak a chuah sual ahcun ready in Tlangmi aiawh dingin an rak dir. Hi ramkhel tiluan nih a kalpi i Pyiduangsu Hluttaw nih cabuai cungah main actor ah a kan chiah i hruaitubik paruk itonnak ah Tlangcungmi cu phu pakhat ah a kan telh.Hi bantuk dirhmun tiangin cawi kan si lioah tulio micheu nih Tlangmi hi main actor le dialogue partner role ah kan um kha kan fiang hna lo. NLD le USDP cozah kha main actors role ah kan chiah hna i Tlangmi cu cabuai hnulei ah NLD zal beipiaktu supporting role menah kan chuah tawn. Hihi a palh ngaingaimi ramkhel khuaruahnak asi in a lang. Kawl cozah le vawleipi hmanh nih main actor (mintha) dirhmun in an kan cohlan lioah mah le mah supporting role (a-yan-mintha) menmen ah tangah kan ithlak tawn hi cu khua fak deuhin ruah a herh ngaingai.

Tlangkawmnak: Rampi zawtnak pathum ralkap cungcuan lungput, Bamar miphun lungput, Tlangcung miphun lungput ah zei lungput dah nai hrawm ve itheih ngaingai khi a herh. Kanmah zawtnak zawn tak kan itheih lo ahcun dirnak fiang loin ping le pang chim le suk a fawite tawn. Kan damnak sii displined democracy, genuine democracy le federal system timi pathum ah zei sii dah kan ithlopnak ding taktak asi ti zong ifian ngaingai khi a herh.

Lufah lioah pawfah sii hna kan rak irawnh sual maw timi izoh ṭhan kan hau hna lai. Kan zawtnak chimreltu le aupitu ah zeitluk an ngan i an fim zongah miphun dang ibochan bu cun kan dam kho bal lai lo, kanmah thazaang ṭhawnter i kanmah bak nih chimrel le damnak lampi dap izuam khi a herhmi asi. Hi a cunglei hmanthlak hi thisa le nunnak nih a teh i a tuar tak lawngah 2015 thimnak ah zeidah kan dirhmun awk asi timi fiang deuhin pemh khawh asi lai.

1962 ah Tlangmi kan rak zaw tuk cang i Federal Seminar timi kha U Nu cozah nih a kawh. Tlangmi kan halmi cu Phahsabala Party lutlai U Ba Swe nih Kawlrawn hi Tlangram nakin a ṭhangcho deuh tukmi asi caah Kawlmi nih kan in hruai hna i kan in ṭhanchoter hna hi a biapi deuh tiah bia a rak kan leh. Kan zawtnak hi development sii nih a thlop khawhmi asi ahcun Mizoram bangin phaisa ngei ramkomh party poah kan zulh thluahmah zong cu a hei hlawk deuh men hnga. Democracy crisis lawng a tongmi Thailand bantuk kan si ahcun Rawn Party nih ai an kan awh dih zong kha a pawi lo kho men ko.

Asinain, democracy le development bantuk sii menmen nih a damh khawhmi ram kan si hna lo, ethnic issue phisin hmasa lo ahcun zeihmanh a kal khawh bak ti lonak ram khi asi cang. Ramkhel cabuai cungah main actor in salu phortu ah cawi kan si lioah midang cu a lu phorhter in kanmah lila a mei tlaitu sawhsawh ah tang kan ithlak lo hi a hun biapi ngaingai. Hmailei a cang kho dingmi thlennak lampi pathum kan cuanh tikah ruahchannak a um bikmi cu thimnak a dih hnu ramkhel biaruahnak hi asi.

Phun dang cun Union cozah he cabuai cungah Tlangmi hi ral aa tu colh dingmi kan si. Hi ramkhel cabuai ral idohnak ah hriamtlai phu lawng an ṭhu ti lai lo, political party aiawh zong ral a tu ve colh dingmi an si. Cucaah Union cozah sinak in a kan dettubik asi kho temi (Rawn Party) mee kuangah kan kuan le zen rawn nakin kanmah aiawhin cabuai cungah ral a tu dingmi “Tlangmi ramkhel party” mee kuangah kuan le zen khat tein kan rawnpiak hna cu hmual a ngei deuh i sullam zong a ngei deuh tuk dingmi khi asi. Salai Van Lian Thang Note: 2015 rampi thimnak lioah ka rak ṭialmi cabia kha a ning tein thlah ṭhanmi asi. Hi link zongah rel khawh asi. Credit: Salai Van Lian Thang

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*