AFGHANISTAN AH US MISSION, BUSH, OBAMA, TRUMP, BIDEN LE AFGHAN COZAH NEHNANG

Catialtu: June Ni Lian Sang. Afghanistan Ah US Mission- Bush, Obama, Trump, Biden Le Afghan Cozah Nehnang.Biadomhnak, Afghan khualipi Kabul cu Taliban nih a lak. Afghan President a zam, an cozah a rawk. Taliban nih cozah thar dirh ding an tawlrel cuahmah. Taliban a duh lomi Afghan mipi an aihram. Trump telh in Republican pawl an puak. Biden an mawhchiat. Biden nih “Ka biachahnak cung ah fek tein ka dir lai” a ti ve.

Zei paoh va si ko seh, khirh awk a tha ti lo. US nih Taliban tuk zong a tim ti lo. Afghanistan in US ralkap, US rammi le an ram ca riantuan mi paoh chanhchuah ding in Biden cozah nih an pehzulh cuahmah. Vawlei tuanbia ah cahmai chia pakhat cu a si. Biden nih President a tuan lio caah amah nih tuanvo a ngei bik. Nain Bush thawk in amah [Biden] hlan i President hlun pawl le, Afghanistan cozah lila nih nehnang cu an ngei dih ve. Kan hun cithlat lai.

George W. Bush. Bush nih US President a tuan kum khat hmanh a tlin hlan September 11, 2001 ah Osama Bin Laden hruaimi Al Qaeda minung pawl nih New York khualipi i a ummi World Trade Center (WTC) vanlawng in an pah, vawlei cung a rak hninh dih i, US mipi zong nih an philh khawh lomi ah a cang. Hi lio ah Al Qaeda cu Afghanistan ah hram an bunh i, Afghanistan ram cu Taliban nih (kum 1996 thawk in) an rak uk lio a si. Bush nih Taliban cozah cu “Osama Bin Laden le Al Qaeda hruaitu pawl rak ka ap” tiah a hal. Taliban nih a pe duh lo.

Cu ruang ah Bush hrihhawhnak in US le a hawitha ram pawl (NATO) nih Taliban ukmi Afghanistan an tuk.US le NATO nih cun October [2001] ah phomh hram an thawk . Thla hnih lawng an rau. December thla ah Taliban cozah cu an thlak khawh i, caan karlak cozah an serpi colh hna. Bush nih ai tinhmi hi Al Qaeda an cihmih le Taliban cawl kho lo tiang in tuah a si. A kum vui April 2002 ah Afghanistan sersiam thannak caah “Marshall Plan” a thanh. Ai tinhmi cu Afghan cozah institutation pawl fekte in serpi hna, US le a hawitha pawl bawmhnak in thanchonak tuahpi, ralkap lei hriamnam, fimthiamnak le equipment thate in tuah piak dih in anmah tein Taliban ral in i veng kho ding in tuahpiak a si.

Cutin anmah le mah i veng kho in ralhrang a um lomi ramdai ah an i ser ahcun US le a hawitha ram pawl zong kan him lai ti khi an i ruahchanmi a si. Hi Plan tlamtlinhnak caah kum khat ah US Dollar a tomtom in an hman [A tang lei ah a zat zoh]. Bush a vanchiatnak cu Taliban le Al Qaeda hmanh thathi in a hrawh khawh hlan ah Saddam Hussein hruaimi Iraq pawl tuk chih a rak hauh mi kha a si. 2003 March thla ah Iraq tuk hram a thawk. Afghan ral he kum khat le thla nga lawng ai hlat.

Hi nih Afghanistan raltuknak tampi a hnursuan.May 2003 ah khan ‘Taliban le Alqaeda kan tei hna, an cawl kho ti lo’ tiah Bush cozah nih a phuan. Al Qaeda hruaitu cheukhat an nawn khawh hna, an training le base camp pawl an hrawh khawh nain an lutlai Bin Laden an that kho rih lo. Taliban zong an thazaang tampi a zor nain an rawk taktak lo. Kum 2005 hrawng lebang cun Taliban cu biatak tein an hun i sersiam kho than. US Mission ai lim hlan ah Bush chan a dih.

Barrack Obama. 2008 US thimnak in Obama a hun kai. Anih chan ahhin tampi hlawhtlinnak an rak hmu nain a caan dih lai hrawng ah ai nawnnok ve. Kha lio i Afghanistan ah US ralkap commander Brig. Gen. Don Bolduc nih cun [naite ah] Afghanistan i kan hlawhtlin lonak a tungtlang (architect) cu Obama ruang ah a si, tiah a mawhchiat.Bush nih US ralkap a rak kuat cang mi hi 36,000 an si. NATO ralkap 32,000 an um ve.

Obama nih Rian a thawkka Februay 17, 2009 ah US ralkap 17,000 kuat chap ding in order a chuah colh. December 2009 ah ralkap 30,000 a kuat chap. A hnu zong ah a hun chap chih than i, kum 2011 ahcun US ralkap lawng ah 100,000 an phan.Amah President a tuan chung ah Al Qaeda he Taliban he hrawh dih cikcek i a him mi le a dai mi Afghanistan ramthar ser khi ai tim.2011 kum thawkka ah Afghanistan ummi CIA pawl tawlrelnak in Al Qaeda hruaitu Bin Laden umnak an theih khawh. “Operation Neptune Spear” timi min in Bin Laden thahnak cu khua an khang.

CIA hohatnak cun Navy Seal team nih May 2, 2011 zantin (1:00 am) ah Pakistan ram i ai thuhnak hmun ah an va thah. Kum 2013 ah Afghanistan ram 90% cu US le NATO ralkap nih dirkamh mi Afghan cozah kut a phan kho. Ralkap tam tuk a chap hna ruang ah hlawhtlinnak sang ngai an hmu. Amah belte thil ai soksahlol mi a um len ve. Cozah thar a si caah Afghanistan ram i an chiah mi hna ralbawi le lutlai cheukhat kha thlennawnnak (reshuffle) a tuah hna.

Mah nih hin Afghanistan ummi US ralkap le Obama cozah karlak ah i hmuhthiam lonak zeimawzat a rak chuahpi. Cu nih cun US ralkap pawl cheukhat ziaza rawhnak le Afghanistan cozah he i hmuhthiam lonak a chuahpi chih. Afghan mipi nih US ralkap le US cozah cung ah mawhchiatnak tampi a hun chuak. Kha lio Afghan President Karzai nih ‘Taliban he hawikomhnak kan ser deuh lai’ ti tiang in US cu a rak hrocer bal hna.

Obama nih president term hnihnak a hun pehnak a si cang i, Al Qaeda le Taliban zong a den khawh ngai hna caah amah president a tuan chung ah US ralkap an dihlak ngawt in tlunter i rian lim ta ai tim ve. Ralkap cu a tomtom in khirh hram a thawk. President sinak in ai dinh ahhin Afghanistan ah US ralkap 13,000 lawng an taang. Caan rau lo ah US ralkap tam tuk an hun thumh hna tik ah Al Qaeda le Taliban cu an thazaang an hun i hrim than tluahmah.Obama zong a hlawhtling thai lo.

Donald Trump. Pa duhlo, Laimi cheukhat nih Pathian mi hman ah kan ruahmi Trump a hong chuak. Anih hi Israel kong ahcun a ral zong a tha, a chim ning bantuk in a tuah. Nain North Korea le Afghanistan kong tu ahcun a chim ning tluk in a hlawhtling hlei lo.Anih hi Bush le Obama he a van i dannak cu Al Qaeda le Taliban hrawh nakding ah ralkap kuat chap chim lo, a um ciami tlunter dih thannak khua lawng a khang ve.

Chawlet thiam mirum ai hngalhnak le America First policy ai tlaih ruang ah khin US cozah nih ramdang ah phaisa tam tuk an hman mi khi a ui tukmi a si. Afghanistan cozah le US cozah karlak pehtlaihnak thawnter nak zong zei ngaingai a ruat ti lo. Bush nih a rak thawk mi Marshall Plan zong kha zei ah a rel tuk lo ti a lang.Taliban he a fek mi hnatlaknak kan ser ta hnu ah US ralkap tlunter ding ti khi Trump cozah khuaruah ning cu a si i. Phundang ngai a si. Bush le Obama nih cun hrawh an rak timh hna nain Trump nih cun bia a ruah huar hna.

February 29, 2019 ah khan Trump cozah le Taliban nih cun Doha (Qatar) ah hnatlaknak min an thut.An hnatlaknak ah a biapi bikmi thil pali a um.(1) Afghan vawlei ah US le a hawitha (NATO) ram pawl ral a sertu mizei ralhrang hmanh hmunhma khuar ter lo ding.(2) US le a hawitha NATO ralkap pawl cu Afghan ram in May 2021 hlan ah chuah dih ve ding. (3) March 10, 2020 thawk in Intra-Afghan dialogue (Afghan ramkhel biaruahnak) tuah ding.(4) Intra-Afghan dialogue ahcun zungzal kahngolnak le, cu kahngolnak a hrawm in tuanchuahnak, le hmai lei Afghan ramkhel road map kong telh chih ding.

Hi hnatlaknak hi Trump a uartu le naihniam deuh pawl nih cun an i uar ngai nain US an mifimthiam le ramkhel a cuantu nih cun an uar lo ngai – Taliban kha phunglut ah chiah (legitimize) bantuk pei a si ko cu, an ti. US-Taliban hnatlaknak min an thut dih thawk in ni 135 chung ah Afghanistan ah US ralkap 8500 tiang in thumh ding ti a si; a taang mi 8500 zong cu thla 9 le cheu chung ah tlunter dih ding, ti a si. Min an thut dih in Trump cozah nih US ralkap cu duhsah tete in an tlunter hna.

Taliban belte nih cun hnatlaknak an thut mi hi an zul taktak lo. Al Qaeda he Afghan ramchung ah a thli in cawlcanghnak an tuah peng rih. Cun, Afghan cozah le Taliban karlak ah ramkhel biaruahnak (Intra-Afghan dialogue) zong March 10, 2020 ah thawk ding ti a si nain September 2020 lawng ah a voi khatnak an tuah khawh. Cu zong cu a tlamtling thai lo. Nain US nih cun a ralkap cu pehzulh in a lak cuahmah hna. Trump a thutnak in a tum laite 15 January 2021 ah Acting Defense Secretary Christopher Miller nih “Afghanistan ah US ralkap 2,500 lawng an taang cang” a ti. A taang mi cu Biden cozah kut ah an chiah.

Joe Biden. Trump nih a chiahta mi US-Taliban hnatlaknak cu an zoh than. Ka pom, pom lo ti an chim lo nain a taang mi US ralkap pawl tlunternak cu May 1, 2021 in ka pehzulh lai i, September 11 ah kan lim dih lai tiah April 14, 2021 ah khan a thanh.Trump a uar lo tuk tu hmanh nih a riantuannak a pehzulh ahcun US nih Afghan War hi a simh tuk cang hna ti a lang.Taliban nih an lehrulh colh. May 1 hnu tiang Afghan vawlei ah ramleng ralkap um rih ding cu US-Taliban hnatlaknak an buar a si lai caah, i kahdohnak a um sual ahcun anmah [US] ruang ah a si lai tiah a hrocer.

Biden nih amah timh tuah ning tein a pehzulh ve.US ralkap a taang mi tlunter hram an thawk than bak in Taliban nih khua te lei in Afghan cozah ralkap he i kah hram a thawk than ve. Voi hnihkhat hrawng cu US ralkap nih airstrike in an bawmh hna. Nain Afghan ralkap raltuk bawmh nakin inn lei tlunnak tu papek in an pehzulh.Biden deadline ning ah September 11 (WTC) a tlaknak kum 20 tlin ni) ah US ralkap an kir dih lai ti a si caah ralkap pawl an tlun dih leisang le Taliban nih Khualipi pawl an hun nawr cuahmah i Kabul tiang an lak thai a hun ton hi a si.

A tawinak chim ahcun US le NATO nih Afghanistan a tuk i, December 2001 ah Taliban cozah an thlak. Kum 20 chung an um hnu ah August 2021 ah an kir. An kir cangka in Taliban nih Afghanistan cu a lak khawh colh ve than. US Mission a hlawhtling maw?US le a hawitha ram (NATO) nih Afghan an rak phomh lio i, an i tinh mi pakhatnak hi Taliban nih ralhrang phu Al Qaeda an humhim hna ruang ah hramhram in an ram ah luh hnawh i, Al Qaeda cihmih ding khi a si.

Taliban cozah a tlak hnu tiang Al Qaeda he tangti an si peng ruang ah Taliban lila zong hrawh i, Afghanistan ah uknak tlai kho ti lo tiang in tuah, Afghanistan kha pehtlaih a fawimi democracy ram phun ah canter i, US a huatu ralhrang hna i dornak (safe haven) ah canter lo, mah cu US nih ai tinh mi (mission) a si.Bush chan ah khan Afghanistan ram i Al Qaeda thithruainak tu caan zeimawzat a hun vaivuan. Obama chan 2012-13 hrawng ahcun an dawi dih luklak hna.

Nain an tlau taktak lo. An i thehdarhnak hmun kip ah phu an dirh, hawikom an ser. A cung deuh ah ka langhter cang bang US-Taliban hnatlaknak min an thut hnu in Taliban le Al Qaeda tuantinak a um peng rih.Trump le Biden nih ralhrang hrawhnak (combat mission) an pehzulh ti lo, ralkap inn tlunter lawng an tuaktan. Marhsall Plan zong President kip nih biapi an chiah ning ai dan cio pin ah Afghan cozah an fel lo tuk ruang ah duh ning in a kal kho lo.

Kum 20 chung ah US nih Afghanistan bawmhnak ah phaisa a hmanmi hi $ 144 billion a si; runvennak caah 61%, thanchonak caah 25%, zatlang le harsa bawmhnak caah 14%. Mah cu thla khat ah $ 600 million (0.6 billion) tluk an hman tinak a si. [Mah hi Afghan cozah an bawmhmi lawng a si i, US le NATO ralkap nih an hmanmi hi $ 2 trillion a phan].Kum 20 chung ah Afghan cozah lutlai vialte cu Mirum ah an i chuah dih. Naite i an President a zaammi Ashraf Ghani zong kha a phaisa tom he a zaam.

Phaisa lei corruption a rak tam tuk tinak a si. Raltuknak hriamnam an zalh piak mi hna le infrastructure an sersiam piak mi hna vialte cu Taliban kut ah a phan dih fawn cang lai. US nih lung diriam in teirul cu an cham khawh nain an ral Al Qaeda a thi lo. Marhshall Plan a rawk. Cu nih a chuahpi; US le a hawitha ram a dohtu ralhrang pawl humhimnak a pe tawntu Taliban nih fawite in Afghanistan uknak a lak khawh than.Kum 20 chung US ralkap 2500 lengkai nunnak man le [$ 144 billion dih in Afghan cozah bawmhnak telh in] $ 2 trillion man Afghanistan i US mission cu hlawhtlin lonak in ni a tla ne.

Aho dah a palh? Atu lio mawhchiatnak kutdong tam-u cu Biden lei a hoih. Republican party mi langsar deuh pawl nih caantha an i lak in Biden an tongh thlerh. Trump nih “Biden hi i phuak seh” a ti. Tuluk, Russia telh in Muslim ram tampi zong nih US cu an hun mawhchiat. Cheukhat nih hnu khirh in Trump an hun mawhchiat ve. Taliban he hnatlaknak a tuah mi kha Taliban dirhmun sang tuk ah a chiah bantuk a si, an ti.Atutan Taliban nih Kabul an lak hnu zong ah UK Defense Minister nih cun “hi buainak hi Trump nih Taliban a rak chawnh hna lio khan ai thawk cang mi a si” tiah a mawhchiat.

A fiang bak mi belte cu Trump kha rak 2020 thimnak ah rak sung hlah selaw atutan Afghan buainak hi Trump lucung ah a tla thiam ding khi a si hnga. Afghan ram chung ah ramleng ralkap an um ti lo tik paoh ah Afghan cozah tuk in uknak tlaih than ding cu Taliban nih an i timh ciami a si caah Trump nih a ralkap a rak lak dih manh lomi kha a vantha lehlam.Obama nih keimah chan ah ka lim dih lai timi ruahnak he a tomtom in ralkap kuat i, caan tawite chung ah a tomtom in a tlunter than mi hna kha ai palhnak a si ve.

Bush lila zong cu raltuk lawng a thawk i, lim ta dih huaha loin buainak vialte a hnu president pawl a roh ta hna. Tuanbia dawh a si hlei lo.Biden president a tuan lio a si i, amah hi atu lio buainak ah tuanvo ngan bik a ngei. Nain a phen ah thil a rak cang mi pawl kha hun pehtlaihter khawh ahcun an rak i nehbuah dih ko ti kha a hun lang.A donghnak i thil poi bik ah ruah cio mi cu Taliban an neek deuh sual mi hna le Afghan cozah cung ah ruahchannak an ngeih sual mi kha a si.Nuclear bomh ai chiah cang mi Pakistan le ser ai zuam cuahmah mi Iran hna ram pahnih karlak ah a ummi Afghanistan cu Taliban nih an uk than cang. Afganistan cu ralhrang hna himnak buk (safe haven) ah i cang than in, US le a hawitha ram pawl ral a sertu ralhrang kut ah hriamnam tha lo a phanh sual ahcun…

Main Sources:Bolton. J. (2020). The Room Where it Happened. The White House Memoire. Simon and Schuster: New York. Kurtzaleben. D. (2016, July 6). CHART: How The U.S. Troop Levels In Afghanistan Have Changed Under Obama. OPERATION FREEDOM’S SENTINEL” (ANUARY 1, 2020‒MARCH 31, 2020) – LEAD INSPECTOR GENERAL REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS. Richards. T. (2021, August 18). Obama is architect of Afghanistan mess, says former US special ops general.Thomas. C. (June 2021). Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy: In Brief. Congressional Research Service. R45122.pdf, Witte, G. (2021, August 16). Afghanistan War. Encyclopedia Britannica.

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